|Hydrogen from H2O |
at high flow rates
Using Catalytic Carbon
The simple statement that water is made from hydrogen and oxygen doesn't give us a very clear picture of what really goes into the creation of a molecule of water. A quick look at the chemical equation for the formation of water tells us more.
It takes two molecules of the diatomic hydrogen gas, combined with one molecule of the diatomic oxygen gas to produce two molecules of water. In other words the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1, the molecular ratio of hydrogen to water is 1:1, and the molecular ratio of oxygen to water is 1:2. The atomic ratios are different because a molecule of water contains 2 atoms of hydrogen and only one atom of oxygen.
There's something more though that doesn't show up in the equation. Energy. The formation of water from it's elements produces, in addition to water, a tremendous amount of energy, 572 kJ to be exact.
This is an example of an exothermic reaction, a reaction that produces energy. It is also an example of what is called a combustion reaction, where a substance (in this case hydrogen gas) is combined with oxygen. You are probably familiar with this reaction through two tragic examples of the unleashed energy of the combustion reaction of hydrogen, the Hindenburg, and the spaceshuttle Challenger.
Yes - hydrogen is a good, clean fuel, producing only water as a by-product. Unfortunately it produces so much energy that it can get out of control, resulting in an explosion. But let's forget about that explosive part for a minute and think about the possibilities - Hydrogen as a New Clean Fuel - it could be the end of the energy crisis - but where would we get the hydrogen?
Can we create Hydrogen from Water?
Oh Yes! It's the same chemical reaction, but run in reverse:
Notice now that the requirement is for energy to be ADDED TO the reactants. This is an example of an Endothermic reaction. This means that we could use Water as a Fuel, IF (and this is a big if) we could find an easy energy-efficient way to convert the water to hydrogen and oxygen, then the hydrogen could be used as a clean fuel.
One way to convert Water to Hydrogen and Oxygen is through the process of Electrolysis - using electricity as the source of energy to drive the reaction. Because of the laws of thermodynamics, you can't break even in this exchange of energy. However, there does indeed exist a better way to disassemble water - namely using CATALYSIS.
Catalysis is the process of using a catalyst, usually to cause a chemical reaction to proceed faster and with less energy required.
What does a catalyst do?
A catalyst is a chemical compound that acts to speed up a reaction, but in the process is not itself changed. Therefore the catalyst, at the end of the reaction, is free to act again to assist another reactant through the reaction.
Catalysts work by lowering the energy barrier between the reactants and the products. In this case:
where it normally takes a tremendous amount of energy to convert reactants to products - the addition of a catalyst can decrease the amount of energy required, and speed the reaction up! Speeding up the reaction means that more hydrogen is produced at a greater rate.
Yes. It is called Catalytic Carbon, a new discovery. The hydrogen-producing process uses the chemical reaction:
2Al + 6H2O + CC => CC + 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2 (Equation 1A)
where Al is aluminum, H is hydrogen, O is oxygen and CC is the catalytic carbon. The aluminum and water can be used as fuels with the catalytic carbon, and hydrogen can be produced where the by-product is aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) which we will call AH. The above chemical equation is not balanced, because CC is a non-stoichiometric catalyst, as explained in the document "How CC Works" (see the link to this document at the bottom of this page). The AH stays in the water, and only hydrogen is released as a gas vapor. The above equation can be stated in a more detailed manner as follows:
2[Al ]+ 6[H2O] + CC => CC + 2[Al(OH)3] + 3H2 (Equation 1B)
Where the brackets explicitly define the elements and molecules in the equation. The same reaction can be written as:
2[Al] + 3[H2O] + CC => CC + Al2O3 + 3H2 (Equation 2)
where Al is aluminum, H is hydrogen, O is oxygen and CC is the catalytic carbon. In this chemical reaction, the by-product is aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Aluminum hydroxide (AH) can reduce to aluminum oxide when dried, to remove water from the aluminum hydroxide. Because the hydrogen-producing reaction can be carried out in water, Equation 1A and 1B showing the aluminum hydroxide product is the reaction mostly used, while Equation 2 showing an aluminum oxide product can also be used when explaining the chemistry.
Many different forms of carbon can be activated (processed) to produce catalytic carbon. For example, it has been shown that a catalyst can be produced using pure carbon, graphite, solid or crushed carbon, or crushed coal. Before common carbon can become a hydrogen-producing catalyst, the carbon must be activated using a special proprietary process to convert it from normal carbon to catalytic carbon.
1. Has the CC technology been experimentally verified?.
2. Is the CC process Hydrogen-on-Demand (HOD)?.
3. Does the process produce pure hydrogen, and not oxygen-containing Brown's gas?.
4. Can the CC process be operated under pH-neutral conditions, to maximize safety?.5. Is it true that the aluminum can be in the form of powdered aluminum?.6. Is it true that other forms of aluminum can be used, such as aluminum shavings and other scrap (low cost) aluminum?.
7. Is corrosion much less than an electrolysis process because there is no requirement for an electrolyte or electrical current flow through the water during hydrogen production?.
8. Does this process produce hydrogen that is safe and non-explosive until air or oxygen is mixed with it?.
9. Is it true that virtually no power is required to drive the chemical process and produce hydrogen, using CC?.
10. Is it true that hydrogen tanks are no longer required, because this process can produce hydrogen on demand (HOD) at any required flow rate?.
11. Can the CC-HOD process be scaled up to provide 1, 10, 100, or more liters per minute of hydrogen?.
12. Can the CC process use tap water?.
13. Can the CC process use sea water (salt water), and thereby be used to provide fuel for ships, island locations, and remote locations?.
14. Can the reaction products (aluminum hydroxide) be recycycled?.
15. Has the theoretical chemistry been developed to describe the CC-HOD catalytic process?.
16. Is Catalytic Carbon available for test and evaluation?.
17. Is this new technology patented or patent pending?.
18. Is it true that this new technology was developed by a not-for-profit laboratory? Is it true that the not-for-profit laboratory plans to encourage and license the technology to other companies for commercialization?.
19. Is CC available for commercialization by any company that wants to build systems for hydrogen production?.
20. Can any company build and commercialize hardware (hydrogen powered electrical generators, hydrogen as a fuel for heating buildings, hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles, hydrogen as fuel for producing steam for turbines, and other applications?21. Can the CC + Al + water technology be improved? Can the CC be combined with the Al so that a single fuel (called CA) can be developed? Then, can CA simply be added to water to produce hydrogen?22. Can CA and water be used to produce hydrogen at rates greater than 130 LPM, or about 35 gallons/minute? After the reaction is started and the system heated up, can this hydrogen flow rate be sustained WITH NO ADDITIONAL POWER input to the system? Has this actually been done?.
YES is the answer to the all of the above questions. More information is online at:
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/ENGLAND.pdf (Office in Europe)
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/CT.pdf (Auto test results)
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/hhogames.pps (Presentation #1)
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/DEMO.pps (Presentation #2)
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/PER.pdf (Performance data)
www.PhillipsCompany.4T.com/CCS.pdf (How CC works)